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E' idea condivisa che le prime traduzioni avrebbero dovuto essere abbastanza fedeli al testo della Vulgata con poco o senza alcun commento. Come ricorderete la parte I si estende solo fino al capitolo diciotto dell'Esodo. There are three principal manuscripts of the work or parts of it. One of them C contains only part III. Esistono tre manoscritti principali dell'opera o sue parti. Uno di essi C contiene solo la parte III. We see here how the transmission of the Icelandic Bible translations became intertwined with the development of universal history.

The biblical texts were seen as source for the early history of mankind and incorporated into larger compilations which aimed to bring together existing knowledge on the ancient world. This was a most natural course to take since history in medieval times was largely synonymous with salvation history. The creation marked the starting point of this story which chronicles the journey of mankind from the Fall to salvation.

I am here referring to excerpts from the Book of Daniel and to the entire Book of Judith which are found in the manuscript AM 4to which dates from c. This manuscript was in all likelihood written for a Benedictine convent in the North of Iceland.


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The second half of the book contains mostly saints' lives and exempla, but its first half is taken up by a universal chronicle compiled by the scribes from many heterogenous sources, the bible being one of them. This material is incorporated into the universal history at the correct chronological point -- the events described in the two books are set during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar and Belshazzar and thus belong to the fifth age of the world, quinta aetas.

It is evident that the text of Daniel and Judith in this manuscript is a copy. The book of Daniel is much abbreviated but everything seems to suggest that the scribes had a full text to hand although they decided to include only parts of it in their book.

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The translation of both books is close to the Latin and there are no traces of commentary in the text. Qui vediamo come la trasmissione delle traduzioni della Bibbia in islandese fosse intrecciata con lo sviluppo della storia universale. Intraprendere questo percorso fu spontaneo dal momento che la storia in epoca medievale era in larga misura sinonimo di storia della salvezza.

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La creazione segnava il punto di inizio di questa storia che narrava il percorso del genere umano dalla caduta alla salvezza. Mi riferisco qui agli estratti dal libro di Daniele ed all'intero libro di Giuditta che si trovano nel manoscritto AM in quarto risalente al circa. Manuscript A contains all three parts of the work and is the only manuscript which does. Part II however was not included in the book from the beginning but added some hundred years after the other parts were written.

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It is therefore evident that parts I and III were transmitted together whereas part II has a different textual history. It is therefore reasonable to think that for some most? How can that be? The answer is one that still applies today, I think. When I was at primary school our textbook in religious studies was a slim volume where the stories from Genesis and Exodus were retold.

There was not much there from Leviticus, Numbers or Deuteronomy. There was a reason for this, a reason which I think also holds true in the case of my ancestors in the Middle Ages. Much of the later books of the Pentateuch is taken up by descriptions of the making of Jewish customs etc. Hence, the translators and the compilers skipped all that and went from the story of the Exodus to the story of Joshua where they resumed their storytelling.

Il manoscritto contiene tutte e tre le parti dell'opera, il solo manoscritto a farlo. La parte II, tuttavia, non fu inclusa nel libro dall'inizio ma fu aggiunta circa cento anni dopo rispetto all'epoca in cui le altre parti furono scritte.

E', dunque, evidente che le parti I e III furono trasmesse assieme, mentre la parte II ha una differente storia testuale. E', dunque, plausibile pensare che per alcuni o la maggior parte degli scribi? Ma come era possibile questo? Quando frequentavo la scuola primaria il nostro libro di testo di studi religiosi era un volume ridottissimo dove le narrazioni della Genesi e dell'Esodo erano riraccontate. Non vi era molto del Levitico, dei Numeri e del Deuteronomio. Vi era un motivo per tale scelta, un motivo che ritengo fu valido anche per i miei avi nel Medioevo.

It concludes with a short deviation from this in order to treat areas beyond Ottoman influence—Iran and Ethiopia—that have not been treated in relation to other Jesuit missions to Christian communities, but nevertheless should be seen as part of the Christian Orient. The Jesuits were in the city throughout the late sixteenth century, such as the mission in the s led by Giulio Mancinelli, who left behind rich descriptions and drawings of the city itself.

In terms of sheer volume, Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine are unequivocally the most thoroughly studied areas of Jesuit activity in the Christian Orient. Roman missals and the decrees of the Council of Trent , 38 much of the scholarship surrounding the Maronites and their relationships with the Jesuits has focused, from the beginning, on spiritual reformation through textual corrections and book printing.

Closely tied to this are studies on Maronite seminarians in Rome. As contact between Rome and Lebanon grew over the course of sixteenth century, and Jesuits were sent to the patriarchal monastery at Qannubin in and again in , the need to train Maronite seminarians in Rome became obvious. By the early s, Maronite seminarians were regularly studying at the Seminario Romano.

The central historiographical question surrounding the Maronite College is its role in papal-driven Latinization of the Maronites and how the seminarians studying in Rome impacted the process of moving the Maronites closer to Rome not only in terms of union but also in matters of doctrinal orthodoxy and liturgical orthopraxy. After Lebanon, Syria has received the most attention. Recent studies have attempted to explore the Jesuits in Syria in more complex terms.

In particular, much has been done to explore how the Jesuits—along with other Catholic missionary orders, in particular the Franciscans—navigated the political climate of the Ottoman world. For Heyberger, the process of the Catholicization of the Christian Orient, even if incomplete, paralleled quite strongly the process of confessionalization as seen in early modern Europe.

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Eastern Catholic but also non-Catholic confession-building thus has become an important historiographical step in terms of understanding the process of the solidification of the identities of the Christian communities of the Levant as they paralleled similar processes in early modern Europe. Yet, the Jesuits remain elements of a dialogue between East and West, rather than as participants in a complex dialogue between confessionalization and religious change in the early modern world.

This trajectory from chronicles to large surveys has also taken place in the historiography of the Jesuits in Egypt. Christian communities outside of the Ottoman world, namely those within Safavid Persia and Ethiopia, have likewise been explored on individual bases and in the context of Portuguese expansion, but never in light of Jesuit activity in the rest of the Christian Orient. The Assyrian patriarchate was centered in Baghdad, which changed hands between the Ottomans and the Safavids on numerous occasions in the early modern period.

Thus, more needs to be said about explorations of Jesuit missions there, such as the mission conducted by the cousins Giorgio and Giovanni di Davit, whose report even includes a chart of travel distances from Aleppo to Baghdad to as far away as Portuguese Hormuz.

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Such studies would further illuminate the connections between the Jesuits and autocephalous Christian communities that often straddled borders, rather than depending on global sea lanes or imperial boundaries in order to delineate Jesuit activities. The other main non-Ottoman center of Eastern Christianity with which the Jesuits had ties was Ethiopia.

This is particularly evidenced by the fact that many of the sources pertaining to Ethiopia held in ARSI are in collections for Portuguese Goa. Regarding the Jesuits, studies treating missions to Ethiopia are only now starting to detach these efforts from the larger efforts of the Portuguese, 64 and there is now better recognition that the larger geopolitical shifts in the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean Worlds compelled the Jesuits to travel to Ethiopia with French backing via Ottoman Egypt, not around Africa with Portuguese protection.

What becomes apparent in this survey of the Jesuit presence in the Christian Orient is its splintered nature. This presents three immediate problems: First it ignores the fact that the Jesuits understood that these Christian communities were often in communion with one another e. Copts and Jacobites , or were rivals, e. Greeks and Copts; Maronites and Jacobites ; second, it presumes that Jesuit missions to the Christian Orient occurred solely as dialogues between European sponsors e.

In the next section, I will address these issues as I attempt to explore current lacunae and avenues for future research that will fill in some of the gaps that the current historiographical trends have left. The exploration above lays bare how the historiography of the Jesuits in the Christian Orient has tended to center on either isolated case studies or as a part of larger surveys. While both historiographical undercurrents are quite useful in unpacking the motivations behind why the Jesuits were sent to the Christian Orient, they are a straightjacket of sorts: they do not help us understand the complexities of why Jesuits were so willing to go to the Christian Orient or what they did while there.

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For this reason, the historiography of the Jesuits in the Christian Orient is still evolving and is at the point where more studies are needed to enrich the conversation. At the end of the previous section, I stated that three issues have developed out of how the Jesuit presence in the Christian Orient has been studied. In a sense, this current section serves as a corrective of sorts to those three issues and provides avenues for how to move the conversation forward. The first such issue is that, in a very real sense, no cohesive entity known as the Christian Orient, with communities in universal communion, existed.

As I said in the beginning of this essay, there were disparate but interrelated Christian communities in what early modern Europeans called the East or Orient. In some cases, such as with the Copts of Egypt and Ethiopia and the Jacobites of Syria, they were in autocephalous communion; in other cases, such as with the Armenians and the Greeks, there were gradations of mutual antipathy.

Or, to cite one example, no analysis of how the Jesuits worked with the Jacobites in Syria in order to woo the Copts with whom they were in communion has been undertaken. There is a substantial evidentiary base for such explorations, and triangulations of the Jesuits and multiple sects have only been presented in a cursory way. For example, how would Greeks on Naxos react to Jesuits working with Jacobites in Aleppo, which would have presumably been ill received by Aleppine Greeks?

The second issue emanating from these historiographical trends—that Jesuit missions to the Christian Orient occurred solely as dialogues between European sponsors e. Rome, Portugal, France and individual communities with Jesuits as their intermediaries—has linked the Jesuits to the larger historiographies of confessionalization and empire building. I am not suggesting that this has not been nor cannot be fruitful.

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In fact, there is still much more to be said about how French Jesuits worked with the French crown and its agents throughout the Christian Orient as an arm of early modern statecraft as well as to combat religious strife from within. The third issue is the integration of the Christian communities outside of Ottoman influence, namely Ethiopia and Persia, into the rest of the Christian Orient.

Because scholars have long oriented these Christian communities toward the Indian Ocean world and Asia—rather than as nodes between the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean—they have not been treated as a part of a larger whole. First, as I just mentioned regarding cross-confessional interaction between Christian sects, communication between Ethiopian and Egyptian Copts up and down the Nile was continuous and hardly clandestine. Second, Safavid-Ottoman relations, the ever-shifting nature of their shared border, and the relative stability that the Safavids brought to Persia meant that Christians in Persia were hardly isolated from Christians to their immediate west; in the case of the Assyrians its patriarchate, which the Jesuits visited on multiple occasions, extended across imperial borders.

And archival and printed sources articulate this very fact. Likewise, there is a substantial corpus of evidence that the Jesuits tried to reach Ethiopia via the Nile once the Ottomans thwarted the Portuguese in the Arabian Sea; 70 there was similarly a steady stream of correspondence between Jesuits in Egypt and their counterparts as far away as Goa, without Rome serving as a missionary metropole.

Third, non-Portuguese Jesuits frequented Persia via the Silk Road rather than via the Portuguese routes around Africa, and could count by the day how long the journey was from Aleppo to Hormuz. Thus, further explorations of these extra-Ottoman Christian communities as points of departure for communication between the Mediterranean theater and Jesuit missions elsewhere would deeply enrich our understanding of the networks that the Jesuits used, especially extra-European ones, such as the Ottoman-controlled Nile River or Eurasian trade networks that provided access to the Silk Road beyond Aleppo.

In sum, despite its fragmentation, the historiography of the Jesuits in the Christian Orient is rich indeed. Nevertheless, enriching it further hinges, I believe, on moving toward more coherence and seeing the Society of Jesus and its relationships with the various sects of the Christian Orient beyond the purview of European empire building or geographical specifics. A complete exploration of the early modern Jesuits in the Christian Orient would perhaps be far more work than one scholar could tackle, and in many ways the microhistorical case-study approach will probably maintain.

Nevertheless, this does not preclude seeing the Jesuits in the Christian Orient as a part of a larger inter-confessional dialogue between complex nodes of exchange and interaction, and such explorations are already being undertaken. In this essay, I have attempted to give an overview of both the source base as well as the historiographical conversation to date concerning the Jesuits in the Christian Orient before the suppression.

The various missions have thereby been explored as either this, or either that, rather than pieces parts of a more complex whole.